Welcome to my blog. I document my adventures in travel, style, and food. Hope you have a nice stay!

The Sahara Conflict : The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship

The extension of MINURSO mission for control of human rights proposal is a real threat to stability in the Sahara. The proposal by the Americans, in the opinion of many observers, is a distortion of the MINURSO mission, which is to oversee, without more, the ceasefire. It is even, according to experts in international relations, a violation of this agreement. Moreover, the United States took the initiative unilaterally without informing Morocco, which constitutes a violation of the principle of negotiations and a violation of this agreement.

When the U.S. uses the UN to give her back to one of its most important allies The relationship between the U.S. and Morocco has always been regarded by experts as indivisible. While compensating the American Revolution, when the Continental Congress called for the recognition of the "Emperor" of Morocco, in order to establish good relations between the two countries. This award was given in 1777, making Morocco the first country to recognize the United States of America. The negotiations on a formal treaty to establish links between the two countries began in 1783. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship was signed in 1786. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, two future American presidents were signatories to the United States. Morocco was the first country to recognize the independence of the U.S. Since those days, the United States and Morocco have shared a close and lasting relationship through the Atlantic Ocean.

An inexplicable position change It is clear that the decision to take a so unreasonable step in such a mysterious way, the UN is testing the extent to which the Moroccans are willing to reject this new measure, which is obviously disgusting and humiliating to Morocco, especially coming of one of its closest allies.

This initiative coming from nowhere, is almost certain to have no constructive purpose and will only cause problems to the Moroccan government, whose only crime is to accept to play by the rules and laws established by contractual obligations.

Therefore, the implementation of this draft proposal probably misled by its peacekeepers and trying to translate some official interference license in the internal affairs of Morocco, the UN has abused its power, doing a disservice to the idea of peace.

Play with this type of procedure can only have a future consequence: threatening the freedom and sovereignty of a country known for its tolerance and openness, known for its mutual friendship at all levels with the United States and the world.

Some influential members of the U.S. are unfortunately looking for more and more power at the expense of a country whose king, succeeding to the throne thirteen years ago, launched a reform initiative rarely seen in the Arab world.

All American governments preceding the time of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams until President George W. Bush always classified Morocco among the countries that have never exhibited bad behaviour, when suddenly the U.S. government makes a statement never heard before, using the NGO "Human Rights Watch" and the country's Ambassador to the United Nations to sow confusion among Moroccan and international experts... Why follow the path of hostility towards one of his most faithful friends?

Why the current U.S. government is trying to kill friendship? If the purpose of the UN as an international organization of peace is to strengthen cooperation, human security and peace, then they should start, before taking a step in that direction, by questioning the moral standards in the ranks of his own institutions. And before they try to invent a devious strategy to control and monitor human rights violations in the Moroccan territory, they have to stop ignoring the human rights abuses in Algeria and in the Tindouf camps that are committed by hatred towards Moroccan Sahrawis. Because in this attempt to strip Morocco of their lawful authority and ability to exercise its power from Tangier to Lagouira, the United States openly demonstrates that, through the UN, they are seeking power through intimidation.

The effects of this decision The shockwave caused by the decision of the United States on April 9 to submit a draft resolution extending the mandate of MINURSO to monitor respect for human rights has not been absorbed by the Moroccan community. The first key to understanding this issue is John Kerry. John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who is the 68th and current State Secretary of the United States. He served as U.S. Senator in Massachusetts from 1985 to 2013 and was chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee of the Senate. Kerry was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 2004 presidential election, but he lost to incumbent George W. Bush which had Morocco as one of its closest allies, a loss that could be the explanation for this change in its external relations.

The ex Democratic presidential candidate replaced Hillary Clinton in February 2004 in the post of State Secretary. Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton, U.S. diplomatic and political figure was the 67th State Secretary of the United States from 2009 to 2013 under Barack Obama’s presidency, without supporting the legitimacy of the Moroccan Sahara, but recognizing its administrative presence. Even John Kerry has always opposed the Moroccan position and always advocated the extension of the mandate of MINURSO, as told by Mohamed Darif, a specialist in the Sahara issue. The second key could be WS Christopher Ross (born October 4, 1943 in Quito, Ecuador), a former U.S. diplomat and U.S. Ambassador in Algeria and Syria (January 7th 2009, he was appointed to be the new UN envoy for Western Sahara), and could explain why it is so hard to fight the desire of Algeria.

Christopher Ross and his continued support to Algeria Christopher Ross has excellent reasons to support Algeria, and even very personal ones for wanting to include human rights monitoring in the mandate of MINURSO and thus put Morocco in an embarrassing position.
Human rights and U.S. interests in Morocco In mid-May 2012, Morocco announced it was withdrawing its confidence in Christopher Ross, but before the general denial of the U.S. and the UN, Ban Ki-moon renewed confidence in Christopher Ross, then Morocco did a step back, 6 months later. Beyond the personal offence that has been made by Morocco, Christopher Ross, as John Kerry and the rest of the U.S. administration, has witnessed the emergence of the issue of human rights in the Sahara that has been treated several times in the recent news of Morocco. The group Gdeim izik process of civilians took place in front of a military tribunal. Several human rights organizations have denounced the trial and the sentencing.

The UN special envoy on torture in Morocco, Juan Mendez, also identified torture in Moroccan prisons in its final report issued in early March. In this context, the case of Algeria and the Polisario asking for the extension of the mandate of MINURSO became more audible than ever. However, the issue of human rights is regularly instrumentalized and the real reason for the return of U.S. could be their interests in the Maghreb.

"American interests in Morocco are much lower than those in Algeria. There are oil and gas, of course, and trade broadly higher with Algeria, and even the safety dimension. Since 2011, Algeria is a source of information on terrorism in the Sahel as it accumulates knowledge with her own national experience, "says Mohamed Darif.

U.S. and John Kerry accuse Morocco of violation of human rights http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012/nea/204390.htm

Credible reports indicate that Moroccan security forces are involved in torture, beatings and other ill-treatment of detained Sahrawis. The words do not come from an international NGO close to Polisario but rather from the U.S. State Department In a paper published on Friday on human rights in the world, John Kerry services were not positive about Morocco. Even worse, the successor of Mrs. Clinton wanted to add a personal touch to the text. For the first time, the pages of the Sahara are separated from those reserved for the kingdom.

Usually, in this type of work produced annually by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, a single part concerns both Morocco and Sahara themes. It is no longer the case. A strong indicator of the change in Washington's position towards Morocco, which began with the arrival of President Barack Obama in January 2009 at the White House and that is confirmed, especially after the departure of Hilary Clinton, the only ally that the kingdom had in this Democratic administration. Echoing claims from pro-Polisario associations in the Sahara, the report accuses the south of the NHRC for not responding favourably to the claims of the alleged victims of human rights violation during the 70 and 80.

The paper by John Kerry says that from the 552 applications filed in the last year, the NHRC resolved only 463, and it still has pending resolution of the 144 remaining cases. It's almost impossible to say that the Council of the tandem Sebbar-Yazami which managed to solve 75% of the cases agreeing, as the report notes, compensations: "108 rooms, 81 posts in the Ministries of Interior and Justice." It turns out that this performance did not convince the U.S. State Department. The document reserved an entire part to torture and inhuman degrading treatment.

Spain believes that the initiative of the United States on human rights in the Sahara is "impossible" In this unexpected American challenge, Morocco found two allies: Spain and France, the two powers who colonized the country until 1956. Unlike other capitals involved, Madrid is silent on this issue, but in the group Sahara Friends of the UN, of which it forms part, has made clear that the U.S. proposal is "impossible".

In the eyes of Spanish diplomacy, MINURSO, which has the sole purpose of keeping peace without having any role in the field of human rights, is based on Chapter VI of the UN Charter. Therefore, it is impossible to resort to using force to impose something rejected by Rabat. With this legal argument, it is intended to prevent interference with Morocco.

Spanish Minister José Manuel García-Margallo is favourable to search for alternatives to the American proposal to request the High Commissioner of the United Nations to examine once again its resolutions.
Paris works, meanwhile, to change or cancel the American project. French diplomats have said that negotiations are in progress: "Today we are not in a position to say whether we will vote in favour or against", said Philippe Lalliot, spokesman for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France last Friday. It is highly unlikely that she’ll oppose her veto to the resolution.

HM King Mohammed VI is devoted to the crisis To try to stop the blow, King Mohammed VI sent a triumvirate consisting of his counselor, Taieb Fassi-Fihri, the foreign intelligence chief Yassine Mansouri, the Minister of Foreign Affairs Saaedine El Othmani in London, Beijing and finally in Moscow, where he will defend the Moroccan position.

The monarch also expressed dissatisfaction with the Washington initiative ordering the cancellation of joint military exercises with the United States, scheduled for later this month in the region of Tan Tan. The 1,400 Marines who participated had landed with their materials in Agadir.
What are the risks of this measure? Incite internal separatists to more provocation and harassment by police to drive backlash. Morocco would then be involved in a war of attrition, thus losing control over its southern territories.

What will Morocco do?

His diplomacy should be aggressive in explaining the risks of such measures on the peaceful resolution of the issue, especially to France and the U.S. The task will be even more difficult with the Socialists at power in France and a POLISARIO theses sensitized democrat leading the U.S. State Department. In the worst case, it is estimated that Morocco could accept inspection missions in the regions rather than a permanent organ of the United Nations.

Meanwhile, the inner face has been mobilized. The political class unanimously rejected this initiative in block. But one thing is certain: the U.S. will not lose sight of the fact, Morocco being a strategic ally and can not take any action that might harm their interests.

Morocco also must improve human rights conditions in the country and work in the regionalization advance for regions of the southern provinces so they will be democratic with their own parliament, united at the whole country, noting that "since the introduction of its autonomy initiative in 2007, the issue of human rights in the Kingdom of Morocco has consistently been manipulated in an attempt to divert the negotiation process and serve as a pretext to other parties to not engage in the search for a political solution to regional differences on the Sahara ".

"Morocco, by their own will, has taken measures and initiatives for the promotion and protection of human rights, particularly in the region of the Sahara. Such measures are in line with bold and substantial reforms launched by His Majesty King Mohammed VI", noting that "the Security Council is, in effect, congratulates this".

"In this context, strengthening the independence of the national machinery and the opening of the special procedures of the United Nations largely fulfil the expectations of the international community, especially the members of the Security Council," said Dr. The Otmani, reaffirming that "Morocco remains confident in the wisdom of the members of the Security Council and its ability to maintain the achievements, build consensus, immunize the process and enforce the parameters that have guided the work of the Security Council on this issue".

Is Spain waging a cyber war against Gibraltar

Sahara: When Polisario Front threatens by an armed conflict