For many people represents history mainly war, expansion, new territories, whether in the context of enlargement of territory, wealth or in the name of God. In the name of God were fighting also Christians, whom Pope Urban II in 1095 urgent that the tomb of Jesus Christ in Jerusalem must be take from the hands of Turkish Muslims. Many crusaders participated mainly in order to purify themselves of their sins and because they were promised that if they die, so they get to heaven. After the First Crusade, some members were drawn to the Templar Knights. The official mission of the Templars was to watch conquered lands and protect pilgrims from Europe. Although these fighters initially lived on alms and did not have much capital, gradually get possessions thanks to the booty and taxes which demanded.
Although these knights were elite fighters, they had also use diplomacy. As reported by Jaroslav Šedivý: „Diplomacy of Templars was consistentent, they didn´t miss any opportunity to be able to negotiate with adversaries, as the fate of Jerusalem depended equally on politics and diplomacy as the force of arms. (...) When they felt they need to use weapons, they did not hesitate to use them, but as soon as they can achieve the objectives of, or simply barter, often chose this path."
End of existence of the Templars came in 1307, when the French King Philip IV arrested and condemned all major leaders. End, however, many of its leaders expected and therefore were prepared. Even on many places of the world they gave enormous wealth. Therefore, even today we can listen and find places that are part of the conspiracy theories and are telling stories about the hidden treasure of the Templars.
Assassins were fraternity, sect, founded around 1080 by Sheikh Hassan-i-Sabbah. They were the slayers, who had learned to use weapons, costumes and various foreign languages nd the most common murder Templars. The aim was to kill the target on public before the largest possible number of people to show the strength and determination. The first fortress of this group was Alamut, where Hassan first gained on his side crew. Then it was bought from the commander for 3,000 dinars.
New fighters (aged 12-20 years) recruited "Old Man of the Mountain," who narcotized them by hashish and then allowed to bring into the garden, looking like paradise. The story of the garden met also traveler Marco Polo, whose journey has drawn up by Muriel Romana. As stated Romana in the garden „matured all the fruit of the world and there was beautiful palace decorated with gold and ornaments. In the garden flowed streams of wine, honey and milk. The most beautiful women were playing on different instruments, beautifully sung and danced. The garden really considered a paradise." When the old man gave man the role, he was again take away from the garden, and promised them that he returned to Paradise, and if he die, he will get to paradise.
Group called herself Nizari Ismailis. The naming Assassins probably get by taking hashish. Although the group had their own religion, taking cannabis is indeed questionable since the Koran strictly prohibits intoxication. Convincing explanation is derived from the word hashasheen what mean noisy people. Another explanation is derived from the word assasseen, what means guardians of the secrets. Assassins have immense knowledge in libraries with amazing writings and were using the latest equipment which overcome their time. Unfortunately, when they were in the second half of the 13th century, defeated by Mongols, the library and all knowledge were destroyed.
As mentioned above, the end of the Assassins was work of Mongolian warriors. Who were these warriors? First, it was the number of strains that Genghis Khan united. The aim was to conquer the territory between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Overall, the Mongols built one of the largest empires in the history. These warriors were skilled archers and horse riders. They were learning these skills from childhood. Children learn to ride a horse from age of 3 years and from age of 5 years were taught to use the bow and arrow. In adulthood, they were masters with using bow and arrow on horse back.
Warriors were highly disciplined, adult males were always ready to go to war. Fighters were particularly known for its tactics, surprising attacks and psychological warfare. They were starting fights with shooting armor-piercing arrows. Overall their main weapons were arrow and bow made of horn and tendons and swords, which were curved sabers. Next, were warriors also using lances, maces and daggers. However, they use also incendiary bombs and gunpowder. During the battle, distributed enemy army into several parts. Overall, their were a great warriors with good tactics and weapons. However, their waiting extinction. In 1368 the Chinese revolted and overthrew the Mongol dynasty. Mongol Empire ceased to exist.
- Jaroslav Šedivý. Tajemství a hříchy rytířů templářského řádu. (Praha: VOLVOX GLOBATOUR, 2008.)
- Muriel Romana. Marco Polo. Benátska karavána. (Paris: Editions 1, 2003)